Dan Flavin was born in 1933 in New York City, where he later studied art history at the New School for Social Research (1956) and Columbia University (1957–59). His first solo show was at the Judson Gallery, New York, in 1961. Flavin made his first work with electric light that same year, and he began using commercial fluorescent tubes in 1963. Major exhibitions of Flavin's work include those at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago (1967); the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (1969); the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden (1989); Dan Flavin: A Retrospective, an international touring exhibition that included the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Hayward Gallery, London; Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris; Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2004–2007); and the Morgan Library and Museum (2012). Permanent, large-scale installations of fluorescent light can be seen at the Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton, New York; Dia: Beacon, New York; the Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas; and Chiesa Rossa, Milan. Flavin died in 1996 in Riverhead, New York.